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b336a53425 The practical realization is usually that a solution loop enters the anode, exits, is refilled with methanol, and returns to the anode again. The need for water limits the energy density of the fuel. 60: 267273. These applications include power for man-portable tactical equipment, battery chargers, and autonomous power for test and training instrumentation. Water drag.
Methanol is a liquid from -97.0 C to 64.7 C at atmospheric pressure. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2010.09.001. "Separate measurement of current density under land and channel in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells". Methanol on the anodic side is usually in a weak solution (from 1M to 3M), because methanol in high concentrations has the tendency to diffuse through the membrane to the cathode, where its concentration is about zero because it is rapidly consumed by oxygen. During the methanol oxidation reaction carbon monoxide (CO) is formed, which strongly adsorbs onto the platinum catalyst, reducing the number of available reaction sites and thus the performance of the cell. The energy density of methanol is an order of magnitude greater than even highly compressed hydrogen, and 15 times higher than Lithium-ion batteries.. Fuel Cell Today. Methanol is toxic and flammable. "Amir". ^ Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery-Powered Devices; and Harmonization with the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, and International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions, by the US department of transportation.